By Dr Leena Yadav
IN VITRO FERTILIZATION
IVF is a complex series of procedures involved to assist couples with the conception of a child having infertility or genetic problems.
One of the first ARTs, In Vitro Fertilization is commonly referred to as IVF. This involves the manually facilitated combination of an egg and a sperm in a petri dish under controlled & favourable laboratory conditions. Thereafter, the embryo is monitored for growth/fertilisation & accordingly transferred to the uterus when the embryologist decides the appropriate day 2 ,3 or 5 of embryo transfer . IVF is the ART of choice in:
1. Cases where the female partner has blocked or damaged fallopian tubes
2. Cases where the woman have no fallopian tubes due to surgical excision,
3. Women with ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure, and uterine fibroids,
5. Genetic disorders.
The IVF procedure begins with the administration of oral or injectable fertility medications under supervision of your fertility expert for hyperstimulation of the ovaries. Thereafter, the female partner is periodically monitored using ultrasound imaging. When the ova (eggs) are of the desired size, the woman is administered an injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) or an agonist to release / mature the ova. Subsequently, the eggs are collected transvaginally under anaesthesia employing a minor surgical procedure, by inserting a hollow needle in the pelvic cavity to collect eggs, using ultrasound imaging for guidance. Next, the male partner provides a semen sample, which is processed to obtain a sperm concentrate on the same day of egg retrieval. Further, the sperm and the eggs are combined together and incubated in the laboratory to promote fertilization. The resultant embryos are implanted into the woman’s uterus three to five days following the egg retrieval procedure. The embryos are transferred into the uterus using a small catheter under ultrasound guidance.
The embryo transfer procedure is painless; occasionally the woman may have a mild discomfort. 12 to 14 days following this procedure, the women undergo the serum beta-HCG test or urine pregnancy test to check the confirmation & further progress of the ongoing pregnancy.